Monday, 15 January 2018

Tintagel: Arthur's Castle?

Top Ten Arthurian Locations: No 2

"Now feast and festival in Arthur's hall:
Hark! stern Dundagel softens into song!
They meet for solemn severance, knight and king,
Where gate and bulwark darken o'er the sea."
- R S Hawker (1864)

Where History meets Legend
A ruined medieval castle on the Cornish coast, surrounded on three sides by azure blue sea, white sea-water spray crashing against the rocks, the birthplace of King Arthur: with such a dramatic setting how can one fail to be impressed with Tintagel?

No, English Heritage have not ruined the island – yet! Under immense financial pressure to become self sufficient as government (tax payers) money is withdrawn English Heritage must increase revenue from top draw attractions such as Tintagel. The so-called guardians of this rare piece of Cornish heritage have been accused of 'Disneyfication' of the site with the so-called Merlin carving on the rocks by the entrance to Merlin's Cave in The Haven and the bronze sculpture named Gallos, inspired by the Arthurian legend.

The face of Merlin causes the biggest concern, as a rock carving, at once it became a permanent feature. But it is unobtrusive and can't be found unless one gets down to Merlin's Cave. Whereas Gallos is clearly a modern sculpture and surprisingly does not feel out of place. Indeed, tourists queue up here to get their photograph taken by the bronze warlord. Only time will tell how this rare piece of Cornish heritage fares in the hands of its trusted guardians.

But next year (2019), English Heritage intend to build a bridge from the mainland to the island. This could be just too much; yes there are many steps to climb to the island but the effort is worthwhile and gives the feeling of remoteness. On achieving the climb you have left behind the mainland and the modern world and enter through a doorway into another realm; you have arrived at Arthur's Castle.

Arthur's Castle?
Geoffrey of Monmouth introduces Tintagel to the Arthurian legend in in his History of the Kings of Britain, c.1136, as the place of Arthur's conception after his father Uther Pendragon takes the form of Gorlois Duke of Cornwall by taking Merlin's potion. That night Uther enters Tintagel Castle and spends the night with Ugraine. In the 15th century William of Worcester toured Cornwall and recorded that King Arthur was born at Tintagel.

The ascent on to the island
The myth of King Arthur and his Tintagel castle has been firmly embedded in the public’s consciousness by successive generations of writers since Geoffrey, including Sir Thomas Malory, Lord Tennyson, and R S Hawker.

The eccentric clergyman, poet and antiquarian, Robert Stephen Hawker (1803 – 1875), known as the vicar of Morwenstow, was inspired to write The Quest of the Sangraal after spending his honeymoon at Tintagel in 1823. Twenty five years later in 1848 Alfred Tennyson, the Poet Laureate, visited Hawker at Morwenstow, and sharing a deep fascination with Arthurian legend, the two travelled to the ruined castle at Tintagel. On completion of The Quest for the Sangraal, Tennyson is said to have declared that “Hawker has beaten me on my own ground.

The curtain wall of the 13th century Castle
Geoffrey Ashe (1997) mentions another legend of Tintagel, possibly no older than Tennyson, that recounts that when Arthur was mortally wounded at Slaughter Bridge (a contender for the site of the battle of Camlann), he was taken to Tintagel and died there. Ashe writes of strange wind-sighings and sea moanings that were said the have been heard around the headland, and continued while his body was conveyed to Glastonbury for burial. Not until his body was laid in the grave did the eerie noises cease.

The birth of modern tourism in the Victorian period arrived in north Cornwall with the railway in Camelford and construction of the hotel overlooking the ruins of the medieval castle; Tintagel met the visitors' criteria of romantic wild landscape and fashionable coastal resort. The guide Florence Nightingale Richards, Keeper of the Castle Keys, would take visitors around the island pointing out such features as King Arthur's Seat, King Arthur's Cup and Saucers, King Arthur's Footprint. Tennyson's epic poem 'Idylls Of The King' (1859) inspired the Pre-Raphaelites leading to a re-discovery in the arts and crafts movement of the period and the Arthurian Revival.

The Arthurian association with Tintagel was accepted dogma until the 1920's when Henry Jenner the Grand Bard of Cornwall presented a paper in which he dismissed the Arthurian connections to Tintagel as a fraud. Jenner demolished the Arthurian connection and concluded that “historically and romantically, Tintagel Castle is rather a fraud” and argued for a religious function on the island. Jenner, who was responsible for the revival of the Cornish language, suggested that the name of the promontory was Norman-French, highlighting the similarity to a rock on the island of Sark which was known to the locals as “Tente d'Ageu”.

Tintagel was originally just the name of the headland promontory, where the curtain wall stands, connected to the mainland by a thin isthmus now greatly eroded by the sea. The village was known, until comparatively recently, as Trevena, meaning 'farm on the hill'. Oliver Padel of the Institute of Cornish Studies has argued that the name may originate from the older Cornish language: 'Din', meaning a fort, and 'tagell', meaning a place where two currents of water meet.

Jenner argued that Geoffrey introduced Tintagel Castle into the Arthurian canon because of its dramatic setting high upon the cliffs of the north Cornish coast. Jenner asserted that the medieval castle was not built until about 1230, nearly a hundred years after Geoffrey wrote his story and therefore could not possibly be an Arthurian site and therefore all subsequent accounts relating to Tintagel as Arthur's birthplace were derived from Geoffrey. He considered the Arthurian association was pure invention by Geoffrey as his own research found no such connection. Jenner's theory that Tintagel was a religious establishment, rather than secular, influenced archaeological interpretations of the site for the next 50 years.

In 1930, C. A. Raleigh Radford was commissioned by the British Ministry of Works to investigate the Arthurian history of the Tintagel site. He carried out excavations at the site, on and off, for thirty years. Yet, Radford's interpretation of the site concurred with Jenner's earlier suggestion that Tintagel was indeed the site of a Celtic monastery.

Radford envisaged Tintagel as Rosnat, created by the holy man St. Julitta, who arrived shortly before the year 500 with a group of disciples. A small group of Irish Saints Lives  make reference to a place called “Rosnat” (or “Rostat”) where early saints received an education. Radford believed that Julitta equated with St. Juliana, one of the 'children of Brychan', a large family of siblings who became Celtic saints and have left their names in church dedications all over Cornwall. Today the low walls of the chapel still stand on the highest part of the island.

Henry VIII's antiquary John Leland visited Tintagel twice, in the late 1530's and early 1540's, following an itinerary similar to that of William of Worcester. Leland records that the chapel of “Ulette or Ulaine still stands within the dungeon”, while the remainder of the castle is in ruins. But Arthur is notably absent from Leland's record of his two visits to Tintagel.

The Chapel
If we can believe Arthurian Romance as being based on fact then a chapel was standing here before Richard Earl of Cornwall constructed his castle in the 13th century. "Perlesvaus or The High History Of The Holy Graal" was originally written in Old French in the first decade of the 13th Century A.D., as a continuation of Chretien DeTroyes' unfinished work "Perceval, or the Knight of the Grail". The unknown author is rumoured to have been a monk of Glastonbury and may have possessed first hand knowledge of the site. The account of Tintagel therein would appear to be adhering to Geoffrey's account in which Uther is transformed into the shape of Gorlois by Merlin:

“[Lancelot and Gawain] ….. rode right busily on their journeys until they came into a very different land, scarce inhabited of any folk, and found a little castle in a combe. They came thitherward and saw that the enclosure of the castle was fallen down into an abysm, so that none might approach it on that side, but it had a right fair gateway and a door tall and wide whereby one entered. They beheld a chapel that was right fair and rich, and below was a great ancient hall. They saw a priest appear in the midst of the castle, bald and old, that had come forth of the chapel. They are come thither and alighted, and asked the priest what the castle was, and he told them that it was the great Tintagel.

"And how is this ground all caved in about the castle?"

"Sir," saith the priest, "I will tell you. Sir," saith he, "King Uther Pendragon, that was father of King Arthur, held a great court and summoned all his barons. The King of this castle that then was here was named Gorlois. He went to the court and took his wife with him, that was named Ygerne, and she was the fairest dame in any kingdom. King Uther sought acquaintance of her for her great beauty, and regarded her and honoured her more than all the others of his court. King Gorlois departed thence and made the Queen come back to this castle for the dread that he had of King Uther Pendragon. King Uther was very wroth with him, and commanded him to send back the Queen his wife. King Gorlois said that he would not. Thereupon King Uther Pendragon defied him, and then laid siege about this castle where the Queen was. King Gorlois was gone to seek for succour. King Uther Pendragon had Merlin with him of whom you have heard tell, that was so crafty. He made him be changed into the semblance of King Gorlois, so that he entered there within by Merlin's art and lay that night with the Queen, and so begat King Arthur in a great hall that was next to the enclosure there where this abysm is. And for this sin hath the ground sunken in on this wise."

He cometh with them toward the chapel that was right fair, and had a right rich sepulchre therein.

"Lords, in this sepulchre was placed the body of Merlin, but never mought it be set inside the chapel, wherefore perforce it remained outside. And know of a very truth that the body lieth not within the sepulchre, for, so soon as it was set therein, it was taken out and snatched away, either on God's behalf or the Enemy's, but which we know not." [Trans. Sebastian Evans, 1898]

However, the account of Tintagel in The High History diverges from Geoffrey in recording a chapel standing in the ruins of a castle in much the same as that of Leland. Yet, The High History was written down at least three hundred years before Leland's account and thirty years before the medieval castle of Richard Earl of Cornwall was constructed; does The High History contain evidence of an Early Medieval stronghold on the island of which the remains were present in Geoffrey's day?

The island courtyard
A Royal Palace
A grass fire swept across the island in 1983 revealing many small dwellings which lead to the questioning of Radford's monastic interpretation. Subsequently, more recent interpretations of the Tintagel site have come to a very different conclusion and favour a secular trading post.

A re-evaluation of the site was carried out by the Cornish archaeologist Charles Thomas who closely studied the pottery sherds uncovered by Radford. Thomas noted that the pottery, mainly amphorae used to transport wine and oil, represented material evidence of imported luxury goods and concluded that the site had been used by high status or royal individuals and dismissed the monastic interpretation of the site.

In medieval literature Tintagel was always referred to as a 'royal palace' and a dwelling of the rulers of Cornwall, notably the palace of King Mark in the legend of Tristan and Iseult. In the earliest Arthurian tales (such as Culhwch and Olwen) Arthur's camp, Celliwig, is always in Cornwall. However, this does not qualify as providing any sort of evidence for proof of Geoffrey of Monmouth's account of the conception of King Arthur at Tintagel Castle.

The history of Tintagel, as with much of Britain, starts in the Roman period. Two Roman honorific markers from the area, one now in Tintagel church and one at Trethevy, a mile and a half to the east, suggest an Imperial presence in the area in the 3rd and 4th centuries. Small amounts of pottery and some Roman coins found on the island appear to confirm limited Roman activity.

In 1998 English Heritage announced the find was of a piece of slate which swung the pendulum firmly back in Arthur's favour. Known as The Artognou Stone, the slate found at Site C on the Eastern terrace, bears the inscription:


The name “Artognou” was proposed as a variant of Arthur and immediately led to speculation that it was confirmation of King Arthur's presence at Tintagel. English Heritage's chief archaeologist at the time, Dr Geoffrey Wainwright, seemingly carried away in the euphoria, described the discovery as "the find of a lifetime".

A display replica of the Artognou Slate
Charles Thomas translated this as "Artognou, father of a descendant of Coll, has had this built". This inscription has been dated to a 6th century hand, found in a sealed layer containing fragments of 6th century Mediterranean pottery. However, it is often ignored that the slate bears two inscriptions in different hands from different periods. The letters 'AXE' appears to be the tailend of a Classical Roman inscription from the Late 4th century, which Thomas suggests may be an inscription to the Emperor Honorius, Augustus from 393 to 423 AD. The slate appears to have been re-used later for some 6th century graffiti, such as a practise inscription. Thomas speculated that the slate may originally have hung on the wall of a public building, perhaps a tax office, in the late 4th century before being used as a drain cover in the 6th century at the post-Roman buildings at Site C. The Romans could have used Tintagel as a trading post, exchanging Mediterranean goods for Cornish tin.

Further archaeological investigations, sponsored by English Heritage, confirmed Tintagel was indeed a post-Roman palace, possibly the seasonal seat of the kings of ancient Dumnonia (modern Cornwall and Devon). Sceptics may argue that archaeologists always seem to find what they want to find, especially when English Heritage are hoping to raise the Arthurian profile of Tintagel.

2017 excavations on the island
A new program of archaeological investigations at Tintagel has already declared the discovery of a 'Dark Age' high status building on the Headland in July 2016. The media circus that followed declared it as the discovery of King Arthur's palace. However, as with the inscribed 'Artognou' slate, this is not evidence for Arthur. The excavations go on.

"I yearn that men I know not, men unborn,
Should find, amid these fields, King Arthur's fame!
Here let them say, by proud Dundagel's walls--
'They brought the Sangraal back by his command,
They touched these rugged rocks with hues of God:'
So shall my name have worship, and my land."
- R S Hawker (1864)

Copyright © 2018 Edward Watson

Geoffrey Ashe, The Traveller's Guide to Arthurian Britain, Gothic Image, 1997.
Robert Stephen Hawker, The Quest of the Sangraal, 1864.
The High History Of The Holy Graal - Branch XX, Translation by Sebastian Evans, 1898.
Charles Thomas, Tintagel - Arthur and Archaeology, Batsford, 1993.
Rachel C. Barrowman and Colleen E. Batey, Excavations at Tintagel Castle, Cornwall, 1990-1999 (Reports of the Research Committee of the Society of Antiquaries of London), Society of Antiquaries of London, 2007.
C A Ralegh Radford, Tintagel Castle, Cornwall : Official Guide, HMSO, Reprint edition, 1969.
Ronald Youlton, King Arthur. Tintagel Castle and Celtic Monastery, Tintagel Parish Council, 13th Edition edition, 1976.
Henry Jenner & J.Hambley Rowe, Tintagel Castle: Its History and Romance (1926), Oakmagic Publications edition 1999.

Photographs copyright © Edward Watson

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Monday, 1 January 2018

King Arthur lives in Merry Carlisle

Top Ten Arthurian Locations: No 3

“King Arthur lives in merry Carlisle,
And seemly is to see;
And there with him Queen Guenever,
That bride so bright of blee.”

Lug's Town: Carlisle Castle
Experiencing quieter days now, Carlisle has been caught between the wars of rival kingdoms for centuries. This is the land of Urien Rheged but Cumbria is also rich in Arthurian legend and well worth a visit.

Carlisle was formerly a major Roman town called Luguvallium (Carvettiorum), thought to mean the "wall[ed town] of Lugus". The large Roman fort was built of turf and timber in 72 AD, supplying support for the garrisons on Hadrian’s Wall. The Roman fort and town are now located under present day Carlisle. After the Romans, Carlisle may have been used as the administrative centre of the Romano-British kingdom of Rheged and possibly the citadel of Urien Rheged; the exact boundaries of Rheged and Urien's stronghold have eluded historians. The city regained its importance at the end of the 13th century when Edward I used it as a base for his invasion of Scotland.

Carlisle Castle
Founded by by William II (William Rufus) in 1092, the Castle we see at Carlisle today was mainly constructed in the late 12th century, occupying the northern end of the historic city. On the second floor of the keep is a remarkable set of well known graffiti scratched into the masonry; the “Prisoners' Carvings” is dated to about 1480, based on the inclusion of the white rose of the house of York and the the boar badge of Richard III.

Being the principal fortress of England’s north-western border with Scotland, Carlisle Castle witnessed frequent conflict between the two countries. Edward I (Longshanks) made Carlisle his headquarters in the early stages of his war against the Scots in 1296. His relentless campaign earned him the epithet “the Hammer of the Scots”.

Between 1173 and 1461 The Scots besieged Carlisle no less than seven times. Robert the Bruce carried out perhaps the most determined siege in 1315 following his victory over the English at the Battle of Bannockburn the previous year. However, the Scots failed to take the castle. The next century Carlisle witnessed one of the bloodiest episodes of the Wars of the Roses during the siege of 1461 when a combined army of Lancastrians and Scots succeeded in taking the castle from the Yorkists.

During the second Jacobite rising of 1745–6 the city was besieged in November 1745 but surrendered after just 5 days. Having found little support further south the Jacobite army retreated over the border back into Scotland in December, leaving a garrison of 400 soldiers at Carlisle Castle to hold off the pursuing English. The castle then endured its tenth and final siege, but fell after being battered by the English artillery of the Duke of Cumberland. Several Jacobite prisoners were taken, 31 given public executions.

Opposite Carlisle Castle is the Tullie House Museum with a collection consisting of over 12,000 man-made objects that date from Prehistory to the end of the Tudor period. The Roman influence here is reflected in the large collection of Roman artefacts housed by the museum, including objects from excavations of the fort and town in addition to a large collection of altars, inscribed and sculptured stones originating from the Cumbrian sections of Hadrian’s Wall, today a designated UNESCO World Heritage Site.

Is This Camelot?
Named as “Caer-Ligualid” in the list of Britain's 28 cities in the Historia Brittonum, the earliest record of the place in English is as “Luel” (c. 1050); combined with the Latin prefix of “Caer” it was known as “Carleol” by the 12th century, which led to later medieval forms including “Cardeol” or "Carduel". In Arthurian Romance references to Carduel are generally considered to represent Carlisle, and is first specifically named as the location of Arthur's court in Landavall (an English version of Marie de Frane's Lanval). Historian Michael Wood has suggested that Carlisle is the most likely base for the legendary King Arthur.

Cardoel (Carduel, or sometimes Cardeuil), which may have some basis in memories of a Northern Arthur to French writers of the Romances, is often confused with "Carlion" (Caerleon) which was known to the French story writers as being in Wales. Indeed, Welsh adaptions of Chretien's Romances always substitute "Caerleon" for "Carduel".

Chrétien de Troyes was the first to mention Arthur's court at "Camelot" in the poem Lancelot, the Knight of the Cart, although Chrétien does not say where it is, but Arthur had travelled from Carlion to get there. In Yvain, or the Knight of the Lion, Chrétien places Cardoel in the kingdom of Gales (Wales).

Chrétien then follows Geoffrey of Monmouth's Historia Regum Britanniae and places Arthur's principal court in Carlion in Wales. Chrétien has Arthur holding court at a number of cities and castles. Cardoel, then appears to be one of the three principal residences of King Arthur, along with Camelot and Carlion. In later Romances, from the 13th century, Camelot came to be the prominent residence.

Surprisingly, in his Le Morte d'Arthur (1469), a text based mainly on the French romances, Sir Thomas Malory identified Camelot with Winchester. Malory was almost certainly influenced by the presence of the Round Table hanging on the wall of the Great Hall at Winchester Castle in his own day. Although Malory saw this as a genuine Arthurian relic his editor, William Caxton, preferred a Welsh location and appeared to lean towards Caerleon or perhaps the Roman ruins at Caerwent.

According to Malory, Guinevere and Lancelot's affair was exposed by Mordred at Carlisle. After fighting his way out of her bed chamber Lancelot fled while Guinevere was sentenced to burn at the stake outside the city walls. Lancelot returns to rescue her just in time of course but he kills several Knights. The ensuing war enabled Mordred to seize the throne while Arthur pursued Lancelot in Gaul, culminating in the battle of Camlann and the demise of the Order of the Round Table.

No doubt because of its association with Cardoel, Carlisle features in many Arthurian Romances, such as the Awntyrs off Arthure which may have been composed in Carlisle in the late 14th century; the  Middle English  texts Sir Landevale and Sir Gawain and the Carle of Carlisle, c.1400, the latter, in turn seems to have inspired The Carle of Carlisle found in the 17th century Percy Folio.

Arthur's Round Table, Eamont Bridge
The presence of Carlisle (Cardoel) in the Arthurian Romances may have influenced the naming of several landscape features in Cumbria. South of Penrith we find 'Arthur's Round Table'. This Bronze Age earthwork with a central round platform is situated at the junction of the A6 and the B5320 at Eamont Bridge. This is another of those prehistoric sites where the connection with Arthur is not understood.

Sir Walter Scott wrote part of The Bridal of Triermain while staying at the Royal Oak in Keswick, clearly inspired by the legend:

“He pass’d red Penrith’s Table Round,
for feats of chivalry renown’d
left Mayburgh’s mound and stones of power,
by druids raised in magic hour,
and traced the Eamont’s winding way…”

Nearby is the Giant's Cave, a place associated with two giants called Tarquin and Isir, which may, or may not, have some connection to the Giant's Grave in Penrith.

Pendragon Castle
At around 50 miles south of Carlisle is the ruins of Pendragon Castle, the legendary stronghold of Uther Pendragon, Arthur’s father, at Mallerstang, near Kirkby Stephen. The only connection to Arthur is the name and the local tale that Uther attempted to divert the River Eden for the moat. The castle was built in the 12th century and owned by the Lord of Westmorland, a certain Sir Hugh de Morville, who was one of four knights who murdered Thomas Becket, Archbishop of Canterbury, in 1170. You can see Morville's sword in Carlisle cathedral.

Carlisle Cathedral
Talking of swords, follow the A595 from Carlisle toward Cockermouth and turn off for Bassenthwaite Lake. This stretch of water is said to have provided the inspiration for Alfred, Lord Tennyson’s description of the lake into which Excalibur is thrown after the battle of Camlann, where King Arthur is mortally wounded, while he wrote Morte d’Arthur while vacating at Mirehouse, overlooking the lake:

“So all day long the noise of battle roll'd
Among the mountains by the winter sea;
Until King Arthur's table, man by man,
Had fallen in Lyonnesse about their Lord,
King Arthur: then, because his wound was deep,
The bold Sir Bedivere uplifted him,
Sir Bedivere, the last of all his knights,
And bore him to a chapel nigh the field,
A broken chancel with a broken cross,
That stood on a dark strait of barren land.
On one side lay the ocean, and on one
Lay a great water, and the moon was full.”

Ullswater is another with an Excalibur story.

Travelling in the opposite direction on the A689 toward Birdoswald on Hadrian's Wall, after 10 miles one soon arrives at St Martin’s Church at Brampton. This church is famous as being the only church designed by the Pre-Raphaelite architect Philip Webb. Inspired by Malory's Le Morte d'Arthur, the Pre-Raphaelite's are famous for their artwork depicting Arthurian scenes which adorn the covers of many of our Arthurian books today. But sadly Brampton church has no Arthuriana on display, the stained glass windows, many designed by Edward Burne-Jones and manufactured by William Morris, depict biblical scenes but is still well worth a visit.

Lanercost Priory & Bewcastle
Of all the Cumbrian monasteries Lanercost Priory is the best-preserved. The east end of the 13th-century church survives to its full height, with its triple tier of arches. The Nave is still used as the parish church.

Lanercost Priory
The Priory was founded about 1166 by Henry II on land granted “between the ancient wall and the Irthing” and remained in use for some 370 years until the Dissolution of the Monasteries in 1536. It is evident that stones were robbed from Hadrian's Wall in the construction, in part, for some of the Priory buildings; a number of Roman inscriptions can be seen among the walls, of note is an inscription to Legio VI Victrix which took part in the construction of the Wall.

Roman altars at Lanercost Priory
Lanercost Priory suffered badly during the long Anglo-Scottish wars, one offensive lead by Robert Bruce himself. The sickly King Edward I is said to have stayed here for five months in 1306-7 shortly before his death on his final campaign.

Bewcastle Cross
Now you've made it this far, it is just a few miles on to Bewcastle. At St Cuthbert's churchyard stands the famous 7th Century Bewcastle Anglo Saxon Cross said to still stand in its original position. Bewcastle is also known for its unusual hexagonal Roman fort, which has been identified as Fanum Cocidi; the earthen ramparts can still be seen by St Cuthbert's churchyard. The fort was built as a northern outpost to Hadrian's Wall, originally garrisoned by the First Cohort of Nervians. It was linked direct by road to the Roman fort of Birdoswald  on the Wall.

Bew Castle (Fanum Cocidi)
Birdoswald is one of the best preserved Roman forts on Hadrian’s Wall, and joined to the longest continuous stretch of the Wall still standing. Nearby can be seen remnants of the original turf wall. The Roman fort here has been identified as the site of Arthur's last battle at Camlann based on the etymology of the Roman name Camboglanna. Here, the Roman granaries were replaced by a chieftain's hall in the early 6th century which has added to the speculation of this being the residence of a Post-Roman warlord. I have discussed the mis-identification of Birdoswald with Camboglanna at length in a previous post The Hunters of Banna - Camlann at Castlestead

Roman remains at Birdoswald (Banna)
The prospect of Camlann being fought on Hadrian's Wall fits comfortably with the theory of Lucius Artorious Castus as a contender for a historical Arthur. In reconstructing the career of Castus in Britain, based on epigraphic evidence and the account of the Caledonian revolt in the 180s AD from Dio Cassius, Linda Malcor presents a serious contender for Arthur, stationed at York, the City of the Legions, recovering much of the north. Malcor's theory was the inspiration behind Antoine Fuqua's 2004 film 'King Arthur' starring Clive Owen, for which both Malcor and John Matthews were historical advisors. Matthews expands this theory in the opening chapter to his latest work The Complete King Arthur ( John Matthews and Caitlín Matthews, 2017).  It must be said that the Castus theory gets closer to a historical Arthur than many other proposals. However, there are weaknesses in this theory which I have noted in a previous post; The Road to Camlann, Part I The North.

Hadrian's Wall at Birdoswald
Following the B6318 further along the Wall for about a mile and a half mile east of Housesteads Roman Fort, we cross into Northumberland and the site of SewingShields. It is a well known legend that King Arthur and his Knights lie sleeping in some cave under a hollow hill somewhere and will return in Britain’s hour of greatest need. There are many sites across the country claiming to possess the 'Sleeping King' in the hollow hill such as South Cadbury in Somerset, Snowdon in Wales, Alderley Edge, Cheshire, Eildon Hills on the Scottish Borders, and here on the Wall we find another.

Sewingshields Castle, probably a tower made from masonry robbed from the Wall, once stood in a marshy area known as Fozy Moss beyond the wind-swept Whin Sill ridge. Here the landscape bears such names as the King’s Crags, Queen’s Crags (said to be named after Guinevere), King Arthur’s Well and King Arthur’s Chair.

A popular local tale recalls a shepherd who was sitting by the ruins of Sewingshields Castle knitting. He dropped his ball of wool and ran after it, when he came across a hidden passageway which he followed. At the end of the passage, now well underground, was a great hall. Here was King Arthur, Guinevere and the Knights of the Round Table sat around a large table, all in deep sleep.

Hadrian's Wall
On the table was a bugle, a garter and the sword Excalibur. The shepherd's instinct was to pick up Excalibur and cut the garter; at that moment Arthur, Guinevere and the Knights all awoke. Surprised by the awakening Knights, the shepherd quickly returned Excalibur to its sheath when Arthur muttered in anger: “O, woe betide the evil day, On which this witless wight was born, Who drew the sword, the garter cut, But never blew the bugle horn.” Arthur and the Knights returned to their slumber and the shepherd fled safe in the knowledge that should the country need Arthur and his Knights he was but a bugle call away.

If you have time it is worth travelling a few further miles east along the B6318 toward the village named Wall. Before arriving at the village, just east of Chollerford, you will notice a large wooden cross set in a walled enclosure by the roadside. This is the Heavenfield Cross erected, near the presumed site of the original cross erected by Oswald, to commemorate the battle of Hefenfelth fought between Cadwallon of Gwynedd and his ally Penda of Mercia against Oswald of Northumbia in 633, or 634 AD. On the eve of battle Oswald claimed to have seen a vision of St Columba, who promised him victory. Bede tells us that Oswald erected a large wooden cross where he prayed before the battle which resulted in a decisive victory for the Northumbrians and the death of Cadwallon. A Saxon church was erected on the site of the battle, which has been rebuilt in the Norman period and again during the 19th century. On leaving Hadrian's Wall we now head for the village of Arthuret to complete our tour.

The Birth of the Merlin Legend
The 9th century Historia Brittonum tells us that Arthur's “seventh battle was in the Caledonian Forest, that is, the Battle of Celidon Coit”.

The site of this battle has been (almost) unanimously identified as the Caledonian Forest in modern Scotland,Coed Celyddon, by Arthurian scholars. At one time this forest probably extended from the Solway to the Highlands, but Welsh tradition tends to favour the area of the Scottish border.

North-east Cumbria retains a memory of one of the bloodiest battles of Early Medieval Period Britain. The 10th century Welsh Annals (Annals Cambriae) record the Battle of Arfderydd in the year 573 as “Bellum armterid”. This is too late for Arthur of course if he was present at the battle of Badon c.500, although Thomas Green (2008) argues for the interesting possibility of Arthur's seventh battle as a mythical 'Battle of the Trees' (Cad Goddeu) as recorded in the Book of Taliesin in which animated trees form an army.

Arfderydd has been identified as Arthuret, lying between the rivers Esk, Lyne, and Liddel, near Longtown, north-east of Carlisle near the Scottish border. However, it must be said, this is based on an uncertain etymology. An alternative suggestion is that the site was once known as “Arthurs Head” which has become corrupted over time to “Arthuret”.

The Parish Church at Arthuret, St Michael and All Angels, was constructed in 1609, yet a church is said to have stood on the site since the 6th Century AD. A local tradition claims Arthur was buried here after the battle of Camlann on Hadrians Wall, thought to be Castlesteads (Camboglanna), in 537. Today a plaque at the church reinforces the claim of its most famous intern.

The Triads record the Battle of Arfderydd as one of the Three Futile Battles of Britain, fought over a “Lark's Nest.” This has been interpreted by historians as a particularly bloody event during the conflict of the Northern British kings Gwendoleu of Caer-Winley and Peredyr of Ebrauc, with much slaughter on both sides. The “Lark's Nest” was apparently the disputed territory at fort at Caer-Laverock.

A later addition to the Annal entry noted that “Merlin went mad.” This is supported by a series of Welsh poems found in the Black Book of Carmarthen and the Red Book of Hergest which tell the story of Myrddin's (Merlin) madness after the carnage of the battle, who then fled into the Celidon Forest where he spent the rest of his days. In Scottish texts he is named as Lailoken. Tim Clarkson (2016) sees the Battle of Arfderydd as the one single event that sparked the Merlin legend.

Copyright © 2018 Edward Watson

John Matthews and Caitlín Matthews, The Complete King Arthur: Many Faces, One Hero, Inner Traditions, 2017. Chapter 1: Arthur of Rome: Commander of Legions, pp.5-40.
Tim Clarkson, Scotland's Merlin: A Medieval Legend and its Dark Age Origins, John Donald (Birlinn), 2016.
Thomas Green, Concepts of Arthur, Tempus, 2008,

Photographs copyright © Edward Watson

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Thursday, 28 December 2017

The Winchester Round Table

Top Ten Arthurian Locations: No 4

King Arthur's Round Table
In The Traveller's Guide to Arthurian Britain (Gothic Image, 1997), Geoffrey Ashe lists five landscape features known as 'Round Tables':

Caerleon, Gwent (Monmouthshire), claimed as the true 'Round Table' in reference to the ancient Roman amphitheatre of the Legionary fortress of Isca Silurum; an obvious candidate for the site of Arthur's 9th battle at the City of the Legion. Geoffrey of Monmouth has Arthur hold court here.

Mayburgh, in Cumbria, is another site bearing the name 'Arthur's Round Table'. Situated at the junction of the A6 and the B5320 south of Penrith is an earthwork with a central round platform. Said to date from the Bronze Age the connection with Arthur is unknown.

Stirling Castle is visible for many miles in every direction, sitting on a high volcanic rock it rivals even Edinburgh Castle's for sheer grandness. Beneath the castle is King’s Park, once a royal hunting forest, now open space. Within the Park is an ancient grassy mound known as the King’s Knot, shaped into its current form around 1620. Tradition claims that King Arthur's Round Table was located in this vicinity. In 2011 archaeologists from Glasgow University located remains of a circular ditch and other earth works beneath the mound of the King's Knot.

Bwrdd Arthur (Arthur's Table), Anglesey, is an prehistoric hillfort with drystone wall ramparts, on a flat topped hill not far from the coast at Beaumaris, east of Red Wharf Bay. An atmospheric site but, again, the connection with Arthur is not known.

Bwrdd Arthur in Clwyd, Denbighshire, north-east Wales, is another 'Arthur's Table'. It is basically a rough circle of indentations in a rocky hillside. John Leland recorded 24 holes which a man could sit in.

In addition, there are many prehistoric megalithic sites, such as the cromlechs in Wales, where the capstone is often known as 'Arthur's Table'. The connection is unknown, however some believe it is evidence of a Bronze Age Arthur.

The Winchester Round Table

The Winchester Table
However, for all these 'landscape' Round Tables there is only one actual wooden table claiming to be such; for over 600 years an 18 foot diameter, legless table top known as King Arthur's Round Table has hung in the Great Hall of Winchester castle. Made of solid oak and painted into 24 green and white segments, each labelled with the name of a knight, the table is perhaps the most impressive piece of Arthuriana to be seen today.

Not that the table dates to Arthur's time of Post-Roman Britain, but it is witness to the belief in the legend over the centuries; from the late Middle Ages the table was accepted as the authentic original. Indeed Caxton promoted the table as such in his Preface to Malory's Le Morte d'Arthur and no doubt the table's presence influenced Malory who placed Arthur's court, Camelot, at Winchester.

Geoffrey of Monmouth was the first to mention King Arthur founding an order of knighthood but he does not mention the Round Table. Expanding Geoffrey's 'chronicle' the Norman poet Robert Wace introduced the Round Table writing around 1155, claiming a Breton source. The English cleric Layamon then expanded on Wace's work, being the first to present the tales of Arthur and the Knights of the Round Table in English poetry.

Later, in Arthurian Romance, the Round Table develops a mystical meaning. The table is the successor to two tables that precede it; the Table of the Last Supper and the Table of the Holy Grail. Merlin has the table made for Uthyr, it is modelled on the world and the heavens. One seat always remains empty in the memory of Judas, the Perilous Seat, which can only be occupied by the knight who attains the Grail. The Table passed to Guinevere's father which comes to Arthur as her dowry. After Arthur's passing the Table is destroyed when Mark captures Camelot.

In 1976 the Round Table was taken down from the hall at Winchester and examined by a team of historians and scientists assembled by Martin Biddle. They determined that the history of the Table began during the reign of Edward I as the centrepiece of a tournament held at Winchester in 1290.

In 1344 Edward III announced he would re-found an Order of the Round Table for 300 knights. Yet following victory at Crécy in 1346 Edward abandoned the idea and announced he would form a more exclusive Order of the Garter, rewarding his loyal commanders at the battle. This Order, like the Table, has persisted through the centuries and today membership is limited to the Sovereign, the Prince of Wales, and no more than 24 members, or Companions.

The Great Hall, Winchester

In 1348 the legs of the Round Table where knocked off and the top hung on the wall at Winchester as a symbol of Edward III's interest in the chivalric idea of the Fellowship of the Round Table.

Nearly 200 years later Henry VII, the first Tudor monarch, exploited the Arthurian legend and accepted Malory's identification of Camelot with Winchester. He named his first son Arthur and had him baptised at Winchester. He was to reign as Arthur II but the Prince died young and his brother came to the throne as King Henry VIII, and the rest, as they say, is history.

Henry VIII had the Winchester table painted in segments of white and green, the Tudor colours, with places assigned to the principal knights and the king. A Tudor rose was painted in the middle of the table and an image of Henry himself inserted into King Arthur's position to reinforce his claim to a British imperium. Henry made further use of the figure of Arthur at Calais in 1520 and Winchester in 1522 to support his claim as arbiter of European power.

Henry's design was repainted in the 18th century, the scheme which we see at Winchester today.

Copyright © 2017 Edward Watson

Geoffrey Ashe, The Traveller's Guide to Arthurian Britain, Gothic Image, 1997.
Norris J Lacey, et al (editors), The Arthurian Handbook, Garland, Second Edition, 1997.
Martin Biddle, King Arthur's Round Table, Boydell Press, 2000.

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Wednesday, 27 December 2017

On the Trail of the Dragons of Emrys

Top Ten Arthurian Locations: No 5

The Legend of Dinas Emrys
Dinas Emrys  (the fortress of Ambrose) is a rocky outcrop 250 feet above Llyn Dinas in the Nantgwynant valley.  According to legend, this is the site that the tyrant Vortigern chose to build his fortress but it kept collapsing leading to the first literary appearance of the young Merlin (Myrddin in Welsh) as the boy Ambrose. This is said to be where the white dragon of England fought and lost to the red dragon of Wales.

“Fleeing Anglo-Saxon invaders Vortigen came to Wales and chose the hillfort as his retreat. However all efforts at building on the site failed, with workers returning daily to find collapsed masonry. Vortigern was counselled to seek the help of a young boy born of a virgin mother; a suitable boy was found named Myrddin Emrys (Merlin Ambrosius). Vortigern’s plan to kill Myrddin to appease the supernatural powers preventing him from building his fortress was scorned by Myrddin who instead explained that the fort could not stand due to a hidden pool containing two dragons. The White Dragon – he explained – of the Saxons would in time be defeated by the British Red Dragon. After Vortigern’s downfall the fort was given to Emrys Wledig (Ambrosius Aurelianus) from which it takes its name.”

The story of 'Lludd and  Lleflys' from the Mabinogion tells how Lludd captured the dragons in a vat containing ale. The dragons were buried at the safest place in Britain that later became known as Dinas Emrys.

Another legend tells of Myrddin's treasure hidden in a cave at Dinas Emrys.

Information board at the Craflwyn centre

Archaeology of Dinas Emrys

Today little remains above ground, however n 1910 and 1954-56 archaeologists excavated the site of Llywelyn's castle at Dinas Emrys and have identified several periods of habitation; the earliest dating to perhaps the 1st or 2nd century. They also found the cellar of the castle and the foundations of the tower. A cistern inside the structure has been identified which may have been the hidden pool and have some connection with the legendary tale of Vortigern and the dragons.

Follow the path past Craflwyn Hall to the waterfall at Merlin's Pool
From the information board at the Craflwyn centre:

"Dinas Emrys commands a strategic position in the valley of Nantgwynant, one of the main routes through Snowonia. A hillfort once stood on the site, shown today by an impressive gateway and stone ramparts around the summit. Excavations have revealed that Dinas Emrys was occupied from the late Roman period (3rd-4th centuries AD) until the 6th century. Pottery from the eastern Mediterranean and southern France has also been found there.

Dinas Emrys - our destination
"Other evidence shows this was an important site for many centuries. A medieval cistern supplied valuable fresh water to the hillfort's inhabitants, and plays an important part in the Dinas Emrys legend. On the rocky outcrop's summit, the stone base of a 12th-century tower survives. Traditionally associated with Llywelyn the Great, it was probably built by one of his feuding rivals before Llywelyn secured the kingdon in 1201.

Follow the path with the wall on your right until you reach a style where you cross into the woods
"Charcoal in the tower's base suggests it may have been burnt down deliberately, possibly by Llywelyn, as a 13th-century poem implies. the tower may have been built of stone, or partly of timber; we do not know its height. These reconstructions are based on the archaeological evidence we do have, including other castles built by Llywelyn.

Keep on through a wooded area
"In 1201 Llywelyn granted the Nantgwynant Valley, including Dinas Emrys, to the Cistercian monks of Aberconwy Abbey. The valley became a monastic grange, and land divisions today still reflect these ancient boundaries."

Go through a cleft in the rocks
The Gwyedd Princes
The Gwynedd Princes Project traces the Welsh Princes from Maelgwn Gwynedd to Llywelyn the Great across 30 heritage sites in North Wales, from the castles the princes built to the royal courts where they ruled, to tell the unique story of the longest and most successful dynasty in medieval Wales.

Scramble up on to the summit
The project was launched in October 2013 at Dinas Emrys visitor centre at Craflwyn, beneath the hillfort, near the Snowdonia village of Beddgelert, said to be named after Gelert, Llywelyn's favourite dog.

The base of Llywelyn's tower Dinas Emrys

On the Trail of the Two Dragons
There is an excellent walk to the summit of Dinas Emrys with breath-taking views of Snowdonia.

Park at the National Trust car park at the Craflwyn centre one mile north of Beddgelert  on the A498. The Sherpa Bus Service goes also through Nantgwynant.

The Dinas Emrys trail
Although a short walk, less than 2.5 miles, it is described as 'moderate' - there is a short scramble toward the summit over mossy rocks that can be very slippery when wet.

For full walk instructions see: The legendary trail of Dinas Emrys

Photographs of the walk copyright © Edward Watson

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Tuesday, 26 December 2017

Arthur and the Dogheads of Eidin

Top Ten Arthurian Locations: No 6

In his History of the Kings of Britain (Historia Regum Britanniae, c.1136 AD), Geoffrey of Monmouth tells us that Ebraucus built a city on the other side of the Humber which he called 'Kaerebrauc' from his own name (Celtic Eboracum = York), at the time that David ruled in Judea, around 1,000 BC. The story goes that Ebraucus then built the city of Alcud (Dumbarton) and the town of Mount Agned, which Geoffrey says was at this time called the 'Castle of Maidens', or the 'Mountain of Sorrow'.

Today it is generally accepted that Geoffrey had Edinburgh's Castle Rock in mind and some fortification that stood on it in his day. Following Geoffrey, the writers of Medieval Romance always assert that the first castle to have existed on the rock was known as 'The Castle of the Maidens' where there stood a shrine to Morgan le Fay, one of the nine maidens.

Castle Rock
In the 14th century John of Fordun provides the first historical reference to a castle at Edinburgh in his account of the death of King Malcolm III. John records that Malcolm's widow Margaret is at the Castle of Maidens when she is informed of his death in November 1093.

Mount Agned is of course the site of Arthur's 11th battle from the Historia Brittonum (Nennius) but other writers have not taken up Geoffrey's connection seeking alternatives elsewhere; one location favoured among Arthurian scholars is Angers (Andegavum), in Gaul, where the Loire Saxons were defeated by the Britons, around the time that Riothamus was fighting in the area.

In his survey of Britain, William Camden (Britannia, 1607), recorded that “the Britans called Castle Myned Agned, the Scots, the Maidens Castle and the Virgins Castle, of  certaine young maidens of the Picts roiall bloud who were kept there in old time”.

A variant 10th century manuscript of the Historia Brittonum provides the alternative name of Breguoin for this battle; this has been identified as 'the Cells of Brewyn' a battle attributed to Urien Rheged in Welsh poetry. The 'cells' has been interpreted as meaning the derelict remains of the Roman fort at Bremenium (High Rochester in Northumberland), an outpost on Dere Street north of Hadrian's Wall. However, Edinburgh is associated with another Arthurian battle, which we will come to shortly.

The name of Edinburgh was at one time commonly thought to be simply a rendering of
‘Edwinesburh' ( Edwin’s Burgh) after the 7th century Northumbrian King Edwin. This seems to have derived form the an entry in an Irish Annal which records for the year 638 that “the city of Din Eidyn is captured by the English and renamed Edinburgh”. But modern scholarship argues that the form 'Eidyn' predates Edwin and the form 'Edwinesburh' can only be dated to the time of David I (d.1153).

The Land of Lleu's Fortress
As well as the country's capital city, today Edinburgh is the principal settlement of the Lothian region of the Scottish Lowlands. The ancient Lothian territory of the Iron Age tribe recorded in classical sources as the 'Votadini', stretched from the Firth of Forth to the Tyne. Traprain Law hill fort in East Lothian was the earliest known citadel of the Votadini until it was abandoned in the early 5th century and they relocated to Din Eidyn (Eidin's fortress), Edinburgh.

A common misconception is that the name 'Lothian' derives from King Lot of the Arthurian legend, best known as the father of Sir Gawain. Geoffrey of Monmouth seems to have based his King Lot on Leudonus, legendary king of Leudonia, who features in hagiographical material concerning St Kentigern. Welsh sources call this same character Lewdwn, or Llewdwn Lluydauc (Llewdwn of the Hosts) and make him king of the Brythonic-speaking Gododdin (Old Welsh = Guotodin), the descendants of the Votadini.

Part of the kingdom of the Gododdin, occupying the narrow coastal region on the south side of the Firth of Forth, known as Manaw Gododdin, was the homeland of Cunedda and his sons prior to their  relocation in to North Wales. This land also spawned the heroic warriors of the literary epic Y Gododdin.

'Y Gododdin' is one of the oldest known pieces of British literature. The poem, written in Old Welsh by Aneirin, named as one of the five bards famous for their poetry in the Historia Brittonum, celebrates an attack on the northern Angles of Deira and Bernicia at a place named Catraeth (Catterick?) c.595 – 600. But the event is an absolute disaster for the warriors of the Gododdin, who spent the previous year feasting at Din Eidyn. The poem says a war band of three hundred set out for Catraeth and only three Britons survived the encounter, others say only Aneirin himself lived to tell the tale. It is argued the poem contains the earliest reference to Arthur the Warrior.

There is only one extant early manuscript of Y Gododdin, from “The Book of Aneirin”, (Llyfr Aneirin), kept in Cardiff Central Library, thought to date to c.1265. It is generally accepted that this manuscript contains the work of two different hands, known as Scribe A and Scribe B. Scribe A wrote down 88 stanzas of the poem, leaving a blank page before continuing with four poems known as Gorchanau. Later Scribe B added some 35 stanzas, some variants of those already written down by Scribe A.

Celtic scholar John T Koch (1997) has attempted to untangle this mess and reconstruct the separate Y Gododdin texts. Koch argues that the most archaic text, reflecting the first, or 'Leech Leud=ud' recension, deriving from the original oral tale, the B2 text, remained in the North, possibly Strathclyde.

The other text, 'The Srath Caruin' recension, Koch claims, moved to Gwynedd, North Wales, following the Battle of Winwaed, which the Anglo Saxon Chronicle records in 655 AD. From this text two separate texts, A and B1, are derived.

From this Koch has reconstructed three texts, variants A, B1 and B2, which he categorised as follows:

B2 – the most archaic surviving text, reflecting the first, or 'Leech Leud=ud' recension, deriving from the original oral tale, was absent of Christian influence and does not contain attribution to Aneirin or indeed mention of Aneirin as the sole survivor of the battle, or even the Bernicians (Northern English) as the enemies.

The 'Srath Caruin' text diverged and the A text in particular, now in Gwynedd, became subject to later additions and interpolations.

B1 – this text derives from the second or the 'Srath Caruin' recension, a Christian collection attributed to Aneirin.

A – the most innovative text, also derived from the second or the 'Srath Caruin' recension, but through third and fourth recensions; again a Christian collection attributed to Aneirin, but has the addition of the Bernicians as the enemy and displays interests in Gwynedd, the Coeling and in the personae of Talysessin and Myrdin.

Significantly the opening stanza to the most archaic Y Gododdin (the B2 text) derived from the
'Leech Leud=ud' recension, is named from the translation of the opening line "The rock of Lleu’s
tribe", B2 text awdl B2.24:

"The rock of Lleu’s tribe, 
the folk of Lleu’s mountain stronghold at Gododdin’s frontier" 

The origin of the Lothian name is said to come from the British *Lugudūniānā (Lleuddiniawn in Modern Welsh spelling) meaning "country of the fort of Lugus".

Koch notes that this singular awdl (B2.24) exists in all three variant texts and argues this is “primary material, pre-Christian, linguistically Archaic” and regards the opening lines as referring to a hill fort on Gododdin’s frontier probably Din Eidin (modern Edinburgh), the chief citadel of the Brythonic speaking tribe of Gododdin.

Arthur's Seat
The rock of Lleu’s tribe can be no other than either Castle Rock or Arthur’s Seat (Suidhe Arthair), an ancient volcano, towering over Edinburgh and linked with the stories of Arthur the Warrior. Local folklore claims that Arthur and his men lie sleeping inside the hill, awaiting the call to come forth in time of the Country’s need.

The Battle of Tryfrwyd
According to the 9th century Historia Brittonum Arthur's “...tenth battle was waged on the banks of a river which is called Tribruit.” 

Of the other Arthurian battles listed in the Historia Brittonum, the 'Battle of Tribuit' is the only one generally agreed to be associated with Arthur in another early Welsh source. Badon is also attributed to Arthur in the Welsh Annals but not by historians Gildas and Bede; for this reason the Badon entry is viewed with some suspicion by historians and probably derives directly from the battle list in the Historia Brittonum.

'Tribuit' appears as 'Tryfrwyd' in the Old Welsh poem Pa Gur? (What Man is the Gatekeeper) dated to perhaps the mid-9th or early 10th century.The poem follows the exploits of Arthur and his warband. In one episode Arthur's men fight dogheads (cinbin) on the mountain of Eidyn; which can only be a reference to Edinburgh as discussed above.

“Manawydan son of Llŷr,
whose counsel was weighty;
Manawyd brought
Shattered spears back from Tryfrwyd.
And Mabon son of Mellt,
he used to stain grass with blood.
And Anwas the Winged
and Lluch Llauynnauc:
they were accustomed to defend
at Eidyn on the border.”
(Lines 19-28)

“On the mountain of Eidyn 
he [Arthur] fought with dogheads.
By the hundred they fell;
they fell by the hundred
before Bedwyr the Perfect.
On the shores of Tryfrwyd
fighting with Rough Grey,
furious was his nature
with sword and shield.”
(Lines 43-51)

In the battle of the Tryfrwyd Arthur and his men fight against a character named Garwlwyd (Rough-Grey), who is likely identical with the Gwrgi Garwlwyd (Man-Dog Rough-Grey) who appears in the Welsh Triads who “made a corpse of the Cymry every day and two on Saturday so as not to have to kill on a Sunday.” 'Man-Dog' would seem appropriate as one of the dog-heads.

Arthur's main protagonist in the fight is Bedwyr, later known as Sir Bedivere in Medieval Arthurian Romance, and the poem also mentions the euhemerized gods Mabon, Manawydan and Lluch Llauynnauc (Lluch of the Striking Hand; i.e. the god Lugus, Irish Lugh, Welsh Lleu).

Arthur's enemies of the mountain of Eidyn are cinbin (dogheads), men who possess the characteristic of cynocephaly, or cynocephalus, i.e. having the head of a dog, which is a widely attested mythical phenomenon existing in many different forms and contexts. The word cynocephaly is taken from the Greek word kynokephaloi, meaning 'dog' and kephalē meaning 'head' which is interpreted as “werewolves.

Thomas Green (2008) sees it as significant that Arthur fights dogheads “on the border” at Eidyn, the very edge of the Brittonic world, reflecting Arthur’s role as a defender of Britain from all attacks, supernatural or otherwise. Green suggests that the story of Tryfrwyd has been attached to the so-called 'historical' battle list in the Historia Brittonum, but in Pa Gur? it is clearly mythical in nature, associated with werewolves and Arthur, aptly, accompanied by the god Lugh in the "country of the fort of Lugus" (Lothian = Lleuddiniawn), the ancient name for Eidyn (Edinburgh), the land providing the first literary mention of Arthur.

Copyright © 2017 Edward Watson

John T Koch, The Gododdin of Aneirin: Text and Context from Dark-Age North Britain, University of Wales Press, 1997.
Stuart Harris, The Place Names of Edinburgh: Their Origins and History, Steve Savage Publishers, 2002.
Thomas Green, Concepts of Arthur, Tempus, 2008, pp.84-85 and pp. 119-121

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Sunday, 24 December 2017

Visions of Camelot

Top Ten Arthurian Locations: No 7 

South Cadbury Castle
South Cadbury Castle is one of the most impressive multivallate hillforts in Britain, constructed on an isolated and steeply scarped limestone hill, standing 500ft on the Somerset-Dorset border. The hillfort occupies an enclosure of around eighteen acres, defended by four massive ramparts and ditches. The hillfort has a long and complex history as an archaeological site and has attracted much Arthurian folklore over the years. Yet, regardless of the name there has never been a castle here in the medieval sense.

The main path leads steeply up from South Cadbury village There is another less used path  coming up from Sutton Montis to the south-west and a third arrives from the east with difficult access. The enclosure rises steeply to a summit ridge with a long plateau, providing long views across the flat Somerset plain, with the distinctive Glastonbury Tor on the horizon about 12 miles distant. Oddly, when looking from the Tor, the hillfort at South Cadbury is very difficult to identify.

There is some Bronze Age evidence at Cadbury but the pre-Roman Iron Age saw a surge in activity with the construction of the huge ramparts and the establishment of a substantial settlement in the enclosure. Roman activity at the site was detected in the excavation of barracks and a ‘shrine’ or ‘temple’ on the hill-top. With the development of the Roman town at nearby Ilchester usage of the hillfort significantly declined.

Resettlement took place during the Post-Roman period with substantial re-fortification of the hillfort from c. 470 AD until some time after 580, the classic Arthurian period. In the 11th century it temporarily housed a late Saxon mint with coins stamped accordingly with identifying marks.

The Folklore
The belief that Cadbury Castle was King Arthur's court, known as Camelot in Arthurian Romance,  can be traced back to John Leland in the 16th century. A number of folkloric tales relating to Arthur have subsequently developed at Cadbury over the centuries following Leland's visit, including the sleeping king and the leader of the Wild Hunt on several tracks past the hillfort.

The earliest extant account is that of John Leland in 1542:

“At South Cadbryi standith Camallate, sumtyme a famose toun or castelle. The people can telle nothing ther but they have hard say that Arture much resorted to Camalat” [Leland - Itinerary 1535–43]

Although Leland implies the local people knew nothing of the Arthurian tradition of the hillfort he seems to have heard more than this and notes a tale of a silver horseshoe and of Roman coins found on the summit and fields at the base.

Later antiquarians, such as Camden (1586) and Stukeley (1724), tend to repeat Leland without adding much, although Stukeley included finds of slingshots, Roman utensils and the ruins of arches and hypocausts, but related that local people were unaware of the name of 'Camelot' for the site, but knew it as ‘Arthur’s Palace’ or ‘Cadbury Castle’.

Accordingly, it can be argued, and it has been, that Leland invented the Arthurian tradition at Cadbury; there are certainly no Arthurian associations with Cadbury to be found in the earliest Welsh traditions of the legend. We cannot, therefore, rule out the possibility of the name ‘Arthur’s Palace’ may have developed among local people following Leland’s claim that the hillfort was indeed Camelot.

However, the itineraries of Edward I and Edward III, who visited Cadbury on route to Glastonbury in 1278 and 1331 respectively, may be evidence that a connection between the hillfort and Arthur was extant as early as the 13th century.

Other local traditions, with no connection to Leland, has named one of the two wells on the hillside as 'King Arthur's Well'. It is claimed that at the other 'Queen Anne's Well' you can hear a cover slammed on 'King Arthur's Well'. This is part of the lore that claims Cadbury is a hollow hill; rumours persist of a large cavern with iron, or sometimes golden, gates, where if you arrive at the right moment you might glimpse King Arthur inside guarding fairy treasure.

Excavations carried out by Reverend James Bennett, the rector of South Cadbury, toward the end of the 19th century records that when he opened a 'hut dwelling' on the plain of the hill he found a flagstone at the bottom which, according to his workman, covered a manhole which led into the cave. The position of this hut is not recorded.

The Welsh chronicler Elis Gruffydd, (1490–1552), noted another Arthurian tradition in the area which may have been a reference to Cadbury Castle; “And yet they [the English] talk more about him [Arthur] than we [the Welsh] do; for they say and firmly believe that he will rise again to be king. They in their opinion say that he is asleep in a cave under a hill near Glastonbury.”

The 'sleeping king in a cave under a hill' is a popular folktale that many sites claim but seems to have exceptional longevity at Cadbury. A well-known tale asserts that some early archaeologists were affronted by an elderly local man who asked them if they had come to dig up the king. Geoffrey Ashe argues that the connection between Cadbury Castle and the cave legend is the earliest recorded tale to refer to Arthur as a sleeping king in England.

Other local lore suggests Arthur was not always restrained within the hill but on certain occasions he could be seen riding by. The Wild Hunt is a common narrative across Northern Europe, usually featuring the Norse god Odin, but on occasion Arthur leads a spectral group riding across the sky on moonlit nights.

Tina Paphitis (2013) claims there are three variants of this tale extant at Cadbury Castle, in each case Arthur is the leader of the Hunt. In one version, Arthur and his knights gallop around the hill on horses shod with silver, and stop off to water their mounts at King Arthur’s Well. This version may have its roots with Leland who claimed a silver horseshoe was found at Cadbury Castle ‘within the memory of man’; or conversely, this may have formed the basis of Leland's tale.

Stukeley (1724) records another local tale that, on winter nights, Arthur and his Otherworldy troop ride along 'King Arthur’s Lane' or 'Hunting Causeway' to Glastonbury, almost 12 miles distant. A local labourer working on the 19th century Bennett excavations at Cadbury claimed to have heard the king and his hounds pass by on the Causeway on his way home one night.

It was during Bennett's excavations in the 1890's on the western side of the hill that a pit containing the skeletons of boys and men bundled together in a hasty mass grave was unearthed. The Somerset river Cam flows not far from here, conjectured as a possible site for Arthur's last battle of Camlann.

The third variant of the Wild Hunt tale at Cadbury Castle tells how Arthur and his knights ride down to the village of Sutton Montis, immediately south-west of the hillfort, on Christmas Eve and drink water from the well by the village church.

The Archaeology
Fuelled by this wealth of tradition held by the local people in 1965 The Camelot Research Committee was assembled to investigate the possibility that an Arthur-type figure, a Post-Roman warlord, was once resident at the hillfort at South Cadbury Castle.

Co-founder and secretary of the committee, Geoffrey Ashe was firmly of the opinion that Arthur is best defined as the British general who won the battle of Badon and argues that he was a real individual identified as a military commander, not a king.

The archaeological excavations began in the summer of 1966 with Leslie Alcock appointed as field director. This was followed by excavations every summer thereafter until 1970 with a short final season in April 1973.

At the end of the 1969 season Alcock interpreted a timber slot as part of a 5th or 6th century hall and evidence was found at the south-west gate which showed a sequence from the Iron Age to fortification of a Late Saxon mint; coins marked 'CADANBYRIG' have been dated to the reign of Æthelred the Unready (d.1016 AD). In between these terminal points, the south-west gate revealed evidence of several violent events around the time of the Roman invasion.

Alcock established one of the most complete ceramic sequences for the Late Bronze Age-pre-Roman Iron Age in Britain. The hillfort was refortified during the Post-Roman period, the classic Arthurian period. He also found evidence for a wall which had been built in the 6th century and the ramparts were strengthened with large quantities of dressed masonry from derelict Roman buildings and mounted by raised wooden walkways. The large timber building, 63 feet by 34, was interpreted as evidence of a powerful chieftain's hall which occupied the part of the hillfort enclosure known locally as 'King Arthur's Palace'; from pottery finds it has been dated to the 5th/6th centuries. Then the hillfort was suddenly abandoned around 580.

The Camelot Research Committee excavations at Cadbury Castle established the possibility that the hillfort may have been a fortress of an Arthur-type figure, a wealthy battle leader who imported expensive goods who held immense influence over the area but uncovered nothing to substantiate that Arthur was an historical figure.

Copyright © 2017 Edward Watson

John C Barrett, P W M Freeman and Ann Woodward, Cadbury Castle Somerset: The later prehistoric and early historic archaeology, Archaeological Report 20, English Heritage, 2000.
Geoffrey Ashe (editor), The Quest for Arthur's Britain, Pall Mall Press, 1968.
Tina Paphitis ‘Have You Come to Take the King Away?’: A Survey of Archaeology and Folklore in Context. Papers from the Institute of Archaeology, 23(1): 16, pp. 1-23, 2013.

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